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Exam 1 1
BUS 8013 Research Methods
Exam 1
Use this document to research your answers. Once you are ready, complete the BlackBoard
assessment exam for course credit. This exam covers Chapters 13, 14, 15, & 20.
Chapter 13
1. How we define a construct will affect the way we measure it. (T/F)
2. How much a person weighs is best described as an example of a(n) _____ scale.
a. ordinal
b. interval
c. ratio
d. nominal
3. Which of the following is a defining characteristic in determining between ratio and interval
a. number of items
b. absolute zero
c. number of intervals
d. nominal values
4. Which of the following is an indicator of a measure’s internal consistency?
a. reliability
b. validity
c. coefficient beta
d. sensitivity
5. When a researcher measures the reliability of an instrument by comparing the results of the
odd-numbered questions with the results of the even-numbered questions, this is an example of
_____ reliability.
a. test-retest
b. split-half
c. equivalent-forms
d. criterion
6. Carla is using education, income, and occupation to develop a measure of social class. What
type of measure for social class is she developing?
a. index measure
b. valid measure
c. reliable measure
d. concurrent measure
7. The ability of a measuring instrument to measure what it is supposed to measure is the basic
purpose of _____.
a. reliability Exam 1 2
b. validity
c. sensitivity
d. indexing
8. A researcher who administers the same scale to the same respondents at two separate times to
test for stability is using which method of assessing the scale’s reliability?
a. coefficient alpha
b. split-half method
c. test-retest method
d. before/after method
9. When a group of experts agrees that a measuring instrument measures what it is intended to
measure, we say that the instrument has _____ validity.
a. face
b. criterion
c. test-retest
d. equivalent-forms
10. When respondents are asked to place local shopping malls so that their first choice is 1, their
second choice is 2, and so forth, this is best-described as an example of a(n) _____ scale.
a. ordinal
b. ratio
c. interval
d. nominal
Chapter 14
11. A person's knowledge about a brand is part of the affective component of that person's
attitude toward that brand. (T/F)
12. What type of scale is the following?
Please an X at the position on the horizontal line that most reflects your feelings regarding the
atmosphere of this restaurant.
 Modern _______________ Old-fashioned
a. graphic rating
b. Likert
c. linear
d. category
13. A person's attitude toward Tide detergent can be directly observed. (T/F)
 Exam 1 3
14. A type of scale that demands that respondents divide points among several attributes to
indicate their relative importance is called a:
a. constant-sum scale
b. Likert scale
c. Stapel scale
d. semantic differential
15. When a respondent is asked: "How often, on the average, do you take a smoke break during
working hours?" and is asked to indicate her answer by circling one of the following: never,
rarely, sometimes, often, very often, this is an example of a _____ scale.
a. semantic differential
b. Likert
c. category
d. constant-sum
16. If a Likert scale statement is worded negatively, the scoring of this item needs to recoded so
that its score values are the opposite of the values of a statement that is positively worded. (T/F)
17. Ranking asks the respondent to estimate the magnitude or the extent to which some
characteristic exists. (T/F)
18. "I love my job" is an example of which component of an attitude toward one’s job?
a. affective
b. behavioral
c. cognitive
d. perceptive
19. Which attitude component represents a person’s awareness and knowledge of the relative
a. affective
b. cognitive
c. behavioral
d. personal
20. When a respondent is required to choose one of the fixed alternatives, what type of scale is
being used?
a. semantic differential
b. forced-choice
c. non-forced-choice
d. symmetric
 Exam 1 4
Chapter 15
21. "Do you own a cell phone? _____ Yes _____ No" is an example of what type of question?
a. leading
b. simple-dichotomy
c. loaded
d. open-ended response
22. Question wording and sequence can substantially influence accuracy. (T/F)
23. "Can you name five brands of tires?" is an example of what type of question?
a. fixed-alternative
b. pivot
c. open-ended response
d. filter
24. A loaded question suggests a socially desirable answer or is emotionally charged. (T/F)
25. A question such as: "Have you ever received a speeding ticket? _____ Yes _____ No,"
when followed by a question such as: "When did you receive that ticket?" is an example of what
type of question?
a. double-barreled
b. leading
c. filter
d. anchoring
26. "In light of the current economic crisis, do you agree or disagree that the President of the
United States is doing a good job of managing the economy?" is an example of what type of
a. counterbalancing
b. order bias
c. double-barreled
d. loaded
27. "What is your favorite hobby, playing video games, or what?" is an example of what type of
a. loaded
b. pivot
c. filter
d. leading
 Exam 1 5
28. An introductory statement or preamble to a potentially embarrassing question that reduces a
respondent’s reluctance to answer by suggesting that certain behavior is not unusual is called a:
a. filter question
b. lead-in statement
c. split-ballot question
d. counterbiasing statement
29. A fixed-alternative question may tempt respondents to check an answer that is more
prestigious or socially acceptable than the true answer. (T/F)
30. Which of the following occurs when respondents believe that past events happened more
recently than they actually did?
a. telescoping
b. squishing
c. myopic remembering
d. zooming
Chapter 20
31. Combining the data from adjacent categories of a Likert-scale item is a common form of data
transformation. (True/False)
32. Which of the following is used to simplify and clarify data?
a. tables
b. graphs
c. charts
d. all of the above
33. When a data set is unimodal, a median split of the data will lead to error. (True/False)
34. Scores or observations recalibrated to indicate how they relate to a base number are referred
to as:
a. index numbers
b. rank orders
c. elaborated numbers
d. real numbers
35. A researcher is reviewing average household income data and sees that one household
reported an annual income of over $1 million. This value lies outside the normal range of the
data and is called a(n):
a. abnormality
b. marginal
c. outlier
d. quartile
 Exam 1 6
36. Which of the following is a graphical way of showing the frequency distribution in which the
height of a bar corresponds to the frequency of a category?
a. perceptual map
b. histogram
c. contingency table
d. frequency chart
37. Arranging data into a table is called:
a. tabulation
b. frequency
c. analysis
d. interpretation
38. Arranging data so that the number of times each category occurs is called a(n) ________
a. cross-tabulation
b. frequency
c. percentage
d. pre-coding
39. The conventional rule for computing percentages in a contingency table is to compute the
percentages in the direction of the:
a. independent variable
b. marginal totals
c. dependent variable
d. column mean
40. When a third variable inserted into the analysis changes the results when two other variables
were studied previously, this third variable is called a moderator variable. (True/False)

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